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Dr Albert Kilian, Tropical Health, Spain
Dr Steve Smith, CDC, USA

Working Group Secretariat
Dr Konstantina Boutsika, Swiss TPH

Recognizing that LLINs have a variable lifespan both in terms of physical condition, insecticidal effect and perceived usefulness depending on the geographic and cultural context, this group collaborates with WHOPES and GMP to develop guidelines for determination of LLIN durability in the field and recommendations to help extend product lifespan.

Further Information

  1. WHO Guidance Note for Estimating the Longevity of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Malaria Control – September 2013
  2. Vector Control Technical Expert Group Report to MPAC – September 2013
  3. A tracking tool for long-lasting insecticidal (mosquito) net intervention following a 2011 national distribution in Benin Roseric Azondekon et al. Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7:6 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-6
  4. Challenges for malaria elimination in Zanzibar: pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and poor performance of long-lasting insecticide nets Khamis A Haji et al. Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:82 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-82
  5. Freely distributed bed-net use among Chano Mille residents, south Ethiopia: a longitudinal study Eskindir Loha. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:23 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-23
  6.  Physical condition of Olyset® nets after five years of utilization in rural western Kenya Paola Mejía et al. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:158 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-158
  7. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya Francis M Mutuku et al. Malaria Journal 2013, 12:46 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-46
  8. Evaluation of Polyethylene-Based Long Lasting Treated Bed Net Netprotect on Anopheles Mosquitoes, Malaria Incidence, and Net Longivity in Western Kenya M. T. O. Odhiambo et al. Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 563957
  9. Physical durability of PermaNet 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets over three to 32 months of use in Ethiopia. Aprielle B Wills et al. 
  10. Guidelines for laboratory and field-testing of long-lasting insecticidal nets
  11. Rodents as a threat to the durability of mosquito nets for malaria prevention: what is known and what is to be done? Charissa Fritzen et al. NetWorks Research report.
  12. Importance of factors determining the effective lifetime of a mass, long-lasting, insecticidal net distribution: a sensitivity analysis O.J. Briet, D. Hardy & T.A. Smith. Malar J 2012, 11:20. 20.
  13. An Observational Study of Material Durability of Three World Health Organization-Recommended Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Eastern Chad Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87(3), 2012, pp. 407–411 doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0331
  14. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia Batisso et al. Malaria Journal 2012, 11:183
  15. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India Bhatt et al. Malaria Journal 2012, 11:189
  16. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets – a model-based analysis Pulkki-Brännström et al. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 2012, 10:5
  17. Loss of Household Protection from Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes, Benin Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 18, No. 7, July 2012
  18. Determinants of hanging and use of ITNs in the context of near universal coverage in Zambia Health Policy and Planning 2012;27:316–325 doi:10.1093/heapol/czr042
  19. Developing LLIN Durability Criteria to Inform Procurement Decisions and Innovation Tropical Health LLP, NIRI, R4D publication
  20. Long Lasting Insecticidal Net Hole Assessment NetWorks / Malaria Consortium
  21. LLIN Hole Assessment Training for Surveyors NetWorks / Malaria Consortium et al.
  22. Net Hole Assessment Training Surveyor Job Aid NetWorks / Malaria Consortium et al.
  23. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya Malaria Journal 2013, 12:46 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-46
  24. Evaluation of Bednets After 38 Months of Household Use in Northwest Ghana Am J Trop Med Hyg December 2007 vol. 77 no. 6 Suppl 243-248
  25. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia Malaria Journal 2011, 10:354
  26. Evidence for a useful life of more than three years for a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in Western UgandaMalaria Journal 2011, 10:299
  27. Durability associated efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets after five years of household use Parasites & Vectors 2011, 4:156
  28. Estimating the potential gains and savings from increased mosquito net durability Malaria Consortium
  29. The cost and cost effectiveness of bed nets to prevent malaria: A tool for comparison Public Health Journal 22/2011, pp. 25-29.
  30. Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer Skovmand and Bosselmann Malaria Journal 2011, 10:87
  31. Guidelines for monitoring the durability of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets under operational conditions WHO
  32. Physical Testing of Long-Lasting Insecticial Mosquito Nets (Unpublished report) – WHOPES 2011